• https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009856982302


An Interdisciplinary Journal on Sexual Health

Aktif Ziyaretçi1
Bugün Toplam16
Toplam Ziyaret582135
Web Site Map
Member's Pages


A Comparative Review of Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogen-Induced Altered States of
Consciousness: Relation to Sexuality
 H. Ümit Sayin


  Altered states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens (H-ASC) is still a vaguely understood phenomenon. Taken the diverse psychological effects they exert, the main mechanism of action of hallucinogens; LSD, ibogaine, THC, PCP, MDMA, methamphetamine, mescaline,  psilocybin and DMT, of which psychological effects are discussed in the article, are not properly understood and explained by the modern methods of neuroscience due to the lack of vigorous research. The involvement of some receptors, such as, 5-HT2 (and probably other 5-HT receptors), glutamate and dopamine receptors,  adrenergic  and cannabinoid receptors, is one of the mechanisms, however it is not easy to explain such incongruent psychological effects by only receptor and neurotransmitter systems alone, since H-ASCs have, sometimes,   their own unity and gestalt, unfolding the subconscious, in the “voyages” they induce, although the perception may, or may not, be distorted depending on the person, and “set and setting”. They induce visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations; synesthesia; perception of fractals, geometrical and kaleidoscopic images with vivid colors; perception of two dimensional pictures as three dimensional, animated and moving; distortions and alterations in the body perception; alterations in the perceptions of temporal-spatial continuum and time; changes in the perception of the ego and the self; feelings of unification with nature and universe, peak experiences –mimicking satori or nirvana-, ecstasy, rapture, extreme euphoria, excitement and happiness, oceanic bliss, self-fulfillment, referred as “good trip”,  as well as, dysphoria, anxiety, mania,  delirium, psychosis, acute schizophrenia, collapse of the self, known as “bad trip”;  depending upon the mood, affection and  psychology of the person, and “set and setting”. Mysticomimetic effects of H-ASCs, imitate the consciousness states of ancient mystics, probably, by means of activating prefrontal cortex, limbic system and the right temporal lobe. A hypothetical “holographic brain theory” may give some extra insights about the explanation of some of the effects of H-ASCs. It should be taken into account that H-ASCs, can be accepted as a good tool to investigate the nature of consciousness, brain and the human psyche, as well as some of the H-ASCs are good models of psychosis, too. Also in some peak experiences, such as ESR H-ASC like effects are defined during intense and prolonged orgasms. More detailed scientific research should be performed to understand the basic and real mechanisms of H-ASCs, to comprehend and unravel the mystery of human mind and consciousness, since scientific medical research on hallucinogens has been legalized since 1992.

KEY WORDS:  Altered states of consciousness, Hallucinogen, LSD, ibogaine, PCP, THC, MDMA, Methamphetamine,

Mescaline, Psilocybin, DMT, ESR, expanded orgasm.


SexuS Journal ● 2018 ● 3 (7): 413-450


Aghajanian GK, Marek GJ. Serotonin and Hallucinogens. Neuropsychopharmacogy 1999; 21:16S-23S.

Astakhov V. Mind uploading and resurrection of human consciousness: place for science? NeuroQuantology 2008; 6(3):245-261.

Austin J H. Zen and the Brain. Massachusets: MIT Press, 1999.

Balster RL. The behavioral pharmacology of phencyclidine. In “Psychopharmacology: the third generation of Progress”, ed. HY Metzler, New York: Raven Press, pp.1573-1579, 1987.

Beauregard M, Paquette V. Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns. Neurosci Lett 2006; 97:625-630.

Belyi BI. A possible holographic principle of right hemispheric function. Hum Physiol 1979; 5(5): 746-52

Brazier MA. The effects of drugs on electroencephalogram of man. Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics 1964; 5: 102-116.

Brimblecombe RW. Psychotomimetic drugs: biochemistry and pharmacology. Advances in Drug Research 1973; 7:165-206.

Brunton L,  Chabner  B, Bjorn Knollman B. Goodman and Gilman's, the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Twelfth Edition, New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2010.

Capaldi VF, Carr RB. Citalopram-induced hallucinations and delusions in a young adult. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2010; 32(6):648.e1-3.

Checkley SD, Murray RM, Oon MCH, Rodnight R, Birley JLT. A longitudinal Study of urinary excretion of N, N dimethyltryptamin in psychotic patients. Br J Psychiatry 1980; 137:236-239.

Ciprian-Ollivier J, Cetkovich-Bakmas MG. Altered states of consciousness states and endogenous psychosis: a common molecular pathway? Schizophrenia Res 1997; 28:257-265.

Conference, Helsinki-Finland (4-7 October, 2012) Proceedings Book 2012; pp: 147-163, 2012.

Corbet L, Christian ST, Morin RD, Benington F, Smythies JR. Hallucinogenic N-methylated  indolealkylamines in the cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatric and control populations. Br J Psychiary 1978; 132:139-144.

Devinsky O, Lai G. Spirituality and religion in epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior 2008; 12:636-643.

Devinsky O. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy & Behavior, 2003; 4 (Suppl 4): S2-S10.

Di Biase F. Quantum holographic informational consciousness. NeuroQuantology 2009; 7(4): 657-664.

Eisner B. Ecstasy: The MDMA Story. Berkeley, California: Ronin Publishing, 1994.

Fantegrossi WE, Murnane AC and Reissig CJ. The behavioral pharmacology of hallucinogens. Biochemical Pharmacology 2008; 75 (1): 17-33.

Fischer R. A cartography of ecstatic and meditative states. Science 1971; 174(12):897-904.

Fried PA. Behavioral and electroencephalographic correlates of the chronic use of marijuana- - a review. Behavioral Biology 1977; 21(2): 163-196.

Glick SD, Maisonneuve IS. Mechanisms of anti addictive actions of ibogaine. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 844:214-26.

Goodman LS, Alfred Gilman A. Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.  Sixth revised Edition. New York:  Harcourt Publishers, 1980.

Grass F, Klima H, Kaspers S. Biophotons, microtubules and CNS, is our brain a “holographic computer?” Med Hypotheses 2004; 62 (2):169-172.

Gray C. The acid diaries: a psychonats guide to the history and uses of LSD. New York: Park Street Press, 2010.

Griffiths RR, Richards WA, McCan U, Jesse R.  Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology 2006, 187:268-283.

Grof S. Beyond the Brain, Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York, 1985.

Grof S. LSD psychotherapy. Auburn Hills, MI: Data Reproduction Corporation, 2001.

Halberstadt AL, Nichols DE, Geyer MA. Behavioral Effects of α,α,β,β Tetradutero-5-MeO-DMT in rats: comparison with 5-MeO-DMT administered in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Psychopharmacology 2012. Jan 6 (prior E-Pub: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222861 ).

Hardman JF, Limbird LE, Gilman  AG .  Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Tenth Edition, New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2001.

Hasler F, Grimberg U, Benz MA, Huber T, Vollenweider FX. Acute  psychological and physiological effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo controlled dose-effect study.  Psychopharmacology 2004; 172:145-156.

Henderson LA, Glass WJ. LSD: Still with us after all these years. New York: Lexington Books, 1994.

Hintzen A, Passie T. The pharmacology of LSD: a critical review. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Hobson AJ.  The Dreaming Brain", N.Y.: Basic Books / Harper Collins, 1988.

Hobson AJ. The Chemistry of Conscious States, Boston: Little, Brown Company, 1994.

Holland J (ed.) Ecstasy: The complete guide. Vermont: Part Street Press, 2001.

Jackson DM, Nohell N, Bengtsson A, Malmberg A. What are typical neuroleptics and how do they work? In Burunello N, Mendlewicz J, Racagni G (Eds.) New Generation of Antipscyhotic Drugs: Novel Mechanisms of Action. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, pp:27-38, 1993.

Klüver H.  Mescal and mechanisms of hallucinations. Chicago: Phoenix books, The University of Chicago Press, 1966.

Koethe D, Hoyer C, Leweke FM. The endocannabinoid system as a target for modelling psychosis. Psychopharmacology 2009; 206:551-561.

Komisaruk BR, Beyer-Flores C, Whipple B. The Science of Orgasm, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006

Komisaruk BR, Sansone G. Neural pathways medi-ating vaginal function: The vagus nerves and spinal cord oxytocin. Scandinavian J  Psych 2003; 44:241-250.

Komisaruk BR, Whipple B, Crawford A, Grimes S, Liu WC, Kalnin A, Mosier K. Brain activation during vaginocervical self stimulation and or-gasm in women with complete spinal cord inju-ry: fMRI evidence of mediation by vagus nerves. Brain Res 2004; 1024:77-88.

Komisaruk BR, Whipple B. Functional MRI of the brain during orgasm in women.  Annu Rev Sex Res, 16: 62-86, 2005.

Krippner S, Sulla J. Spiritual content in experimental reports from Ayahuasca sessions. NeuroQuantology 2011; 2:333-350.

Ladas AK,  Beverly W, Perry JD.  The G-Spot and other Discoveries About Human Sexuality, New York: Henry Holtand Company 2005, (first publication 1982).

Lavallee MR, Persinger MA. Lefte AR (right temporal lobe) suppressions during listening, ego-alien intrusion experiences and spiritualistic beliefs  in normal women. Percept Motor Skills 1992; 75: 547-551.

Leary T. Info-Psychology. Las Vegas: Falcon Press, 1989.

Lee MA and Shlain B. The complete social history of LSD: the CIA, the sixties and beyond. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1985.

Lilly J. The center of the cyclone: an autobiography of inner space. New York: Bantam books, 1972.

Ling  TM Buckman J. The Treatment of Frigidity with LSD and Ritalin. Psychedelic Rev 1966; 1: 450-458.

Ludwig A, Levine J. "A Controlled comparison of five brief treatment techniques employing LSD, hypnosis, and psychotheraphy", American Psychotheraphy 1965; 19:417-435.

Maciulaitis R, Kontrimaviciute V, Bressolle FM, Briedis V.  Ibogaine, an anti-addictive drug: pharmacology and time to go further in development. A narrative review. Human Exp Toxicol 2008; 27 (3): 181-94.

Malizia E, Borgo S, Andreucci G. Behavioral symptomatology indicative of cannabinoids or phencyclidine intoxication in man. Riv Toss Sperim Clin 1984; 14(1-2):87-95.

Marcon G, Cancelli I, Zamarian L, Bergonzi P, Balestrieri M. Visual hallucinations with sertraline. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65(3):446-7.

Mavlyutov TA, Epstein ML, Liu P, Verbny YI, Zisling-Conhaim L, Ruoho AE. Development of the Sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N, N-Dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, Indole-N-Methyl Transferase. Neuroscience 2012; 206: 60-68.

McCarron MM, Schulze BW, Thompson GA. Acute phencyclidine intoxication: Incidence of clinical findings in 1,000 cases. Ann Em Med 1981; 10(5):237-242.

Metzner R. "States of Consciousness and Transpersonal Psychology", In: Vallee, R. & Halling, S. (eds), Existential and Phenomenological Perspectives in Psychology. New York: Plenum Press, pp.329-338, 1989.

Metzner R. (ed.) Ayahuasca - Human Consciousness and the Spirits of Nature. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1999.

Metzner R. 1994. Addiction and Transcendence as Altered States of Consciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 1994; 26(1): 1-17.

Metzner R. Hallucinogenic drugs and plants in psychotherapy and shamanism. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1998; 30 (4):333-341.

Metzner R. Maps of Consciousness. New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1971.

Metzner R. The Role of Psychoactive Plant Medicines. in Charles S. Grob (ed.) Hallucinogens - A Reader. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher / Putnam, pp.23-37, 2002.

Mithoefer MC, Wagner MT, Mithoefer AT, Jerome L, Dublin R. The safety and efficacy of ±3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study. J Psychopharmacology 2011, 25 (4): 439-52.

Muramuto O. The role medial prefrontal cortex in human religious activity. Med Hypteheses 2004; 62:479-485.

Murray RM, Oon MC, Rodnight R, Birley JL, Smith A. Increased excretion of dimethytrptamine and certain features of psychosis: a possible association. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979; 35 (6): 644-649.

Newberg A, Poudehnad M, Alavi A, d’Aquili EG. Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: preliminary findings and methodological issues.  Percept Motor Skills 2003: 97:625-630.

Nielsen EB, Scheel-Krüger J. Central nervous system stimulants: neuropharmacological mechanisms. Psychopharmacol Ser 1988; 4:57-72.

Ogata A, Miyakawa T. Religious experiences in epileptic patients with a focus on ictus-related episodes. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 52:321-325.

Pamplona F, Takahashi R. Psychopharmacology of the endocannabinoids: far beyond anandamide. J Psychopharmacol. 2012 ;26(1):7-22.

Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth O, Emrich HM and  Hintzen A. Pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: A review. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 2008; 14:295-314.

Persinger MA, Valliant PM. Temporal lobe signs and reports of subjective paranormal experiences in a normal population: a replication. Percept Motor Skills 1985; 60:903-909.

Pertwee RG.  Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond. Addiction Biol 2008; 147-159.

Pizzagalli D, Lehmann D, Gianotti L, Koenig T, Tanaka H, Wackermann J, Brugger P. Brain electric correlates of strong belief in paranormal phenomena: intracerebral EEG source and regional Omega complexity analysis. Psychiatry Res 2000; 100:139-154.

Pletscher A and Ladewig  D eds.50 years of LSD: Current status and perspectives of hallucinogens. New York: Parhenon Publishing group, 1993.

Popik P and Skonick P. Pharmacology of ibogaine and ibogaine related alkaloids. Chapter 3, in “The Alkaloids” Edited by GA Cordell. 1998; 52:197-231.

Popik P, Layer RT, Skolnick P. 100 years of ibogaine: neurochemical and pharmacological actions of a putative anti-addictive drug. Pharmacological Reviews 1995; 47(2):235-253.

Rawson RA, Tennant FS Jr, McCann MA. Characteristics of 68 chronic phencyclidine abusers who sought treatment. Drug Alc Depend 1981; 8(3):223-7.

Ross C, The CIA Doctors, TX: Manitou Publications, 2006.

Rothman BR, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, ROmero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse 2001; 39:32-41.

Saver  JL, Rabin J. The neural substrates of religious experience. J Neuropsychiat Clin Neurosci 1997:9:498-510.

Sayin  HÜ. Altered states of consciousness occurring during expanded sexual response in the human female: preliminary definitions. Neuroquantology;  9(4): 882-891, 2011.

Sayin HÜ. Doors of female orgasmic consciousness: New theories on the peak experience and mechanisms of female orgasm and expanded sexual response. (Research and Review) NeuroQu-antology, 10 (4): 692-714, 2012.

Sayin HÜ and Kocatürk A. Expanded sexual response in the human female: The mechanisms of expanded orgasms in women (Review, Book Chapter). Proceedings of NACS-2012-Helsinki

Sayin HÜ. Does the Nervous System Have an Intrinsic Archaic Language? Entoptic Images and Phosphenes (Research and Review). NeuroQuantology 12 (3): 427-445, 2014.

Sayin HÜ. Does the Nervous System Have an Intrinsic Archaic Language? Entoptic Images and Phosphenes (Research and Review). NeuroQuantology 12 (3): 427-445, 2014.

Sayin HÜ.   PARAFİLİ-1: Cinsel Bozukluklar ve Normal Dışı Cinsel Davranışlar (Paraphilia-1: Sexual Behavior Beyond Normal). Ders Kitabı-Textbook, İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, (387 pages), 2016. ISBN: 978-605-85249-8-9

Sayin HÜ.   Psikoaktif Bitkilerin Tarihi ve Farklı Bilinç Hallerinin Psikofarmakolojisi (The History of Psychoactive Plants and the Psychopharmacology of Altered States of Consciousness), Ders kitabı-Textbook,  İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, (324 pages), 2016. ISBN: 978-605-85249-6-5

Sayin HÜ.  Artırılmış Cinsel Doyum: ESR; Kadınlarda Ultra Orgazm (Expanded Sexual Response: ESR; Ultra Orgasm in Women), İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, 2012. (336 pages) ISBN: 978-605-87091-0-2

Sayin HÜ.  Cinsel Beyin  (Sexual Brain-Sexual Mind). İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications (384 pages). 2018. ISBN:  978-605-2141-19-9

Sayin HÜ.  Cinsellikte Farklı Boyutlar (Derin Sex) (Different Dimensions of Sexuality: Deep Sex, second expanded edition, two volumes) İki cilt, ikinci genişletilmiş baskı. İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, 2014. (880 pages, 2 volumes) ISBN: 978-60587091-9-5

Sayin HÜ.  Female Orgasmic Consciousness: New Horizons. SexuS Journal. 2 (4): 117-145, 2017

Sayin HÜ.  Female Orgasmic Consciousness: New Horizons. SexuS Journal. 2 (4): 117-145, 2017.

Sayin HÜ.  Kadın ve Orgazm: Orgazm Yöntemleri ve Yeni Cinsel Terapi Teorileri (Women and Orgasm: Orgasm Methods and Novel Sex Therapy Theories), İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications (480 pages). 2017.  ISBN: 978-605-2141-02-1

Sayin HÜ.  Kadınlarda Orgazmın Psikolojisi (Psychology of Orgasm in Women). İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, 2015. (304 pages) ISBN: 978-605-85249-3-4

Sayin HÜ. The Consumption of Psychoactive Plants During Religious Rituals: The Roots of Common Symbols and Figures in Religions and Myths, (Research and Review) NeuroQuantology, 12 (2): 276-296, 2014.

Schwartz L, Schwartz B. The One Hour Orgasm. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1999.

Scotter EL, Abood ME, Glass M. The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2010; 160(3):480-98.

Shagas C. Effects of LSD on somatosensory and visual evoked potentials and on the EEG in man. Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry 1966; 9:209-227.

Shulgin A and Shulgin A. PIHKAL: A chemical love story. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press, 1991.

Shulgin A and Shulgin A. TIHKAL: The continuation. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press, 1997.

Siegel RK. Fire in the brain: Clinical tales of hallucinations. New York: A Dutton Book (Penguin group), 1992.

Solomon D. The Marijuana papers. London: Panther books, 1972.

Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Berkeley, CA: Ronin Publishing Inc, 1978.

Taylor P. Expanded Orgasm: Soar to Ecstasy at your Lover's Every Touch, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Casablanca, 2002.

Taylor P. PhD Thesis: An Observational and Comparative Study of Practitioners of Expanded Orgasm: An Investigation of an Effective and Accessible Path to Transcendent States of Consciousness, Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Philosophy in Transpersonal Psychology, International University of Professional Studies, Maui, Hawaii, 2000.