• https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009856982302
  • https://plus.google.com/humitsayin@gmail.com/posts


An Interdisciplinary Journal on Sexual Health

Aktif Ziyaretçi2
Bugün Toplam35
Toplam Ziyaret556543
Web Site Map
Member's Pages


Developmental, Sexual and    Reproductive Neuroendocrinology:

 Historical, Clinical and Ethical Considerations


Milton Diamond

 Abstract:  Different milestones have marked the development of the field of neuroendocrinology. This is an essay in which a new direction is proposed; one in which the field is marked more by a concern for ethical considerations than experimental procedures. Among the primary concerns is the need for a national registry for intersex and transsexual cases to follow how they are managed and to assess the long-term results. As in Europe, the data in the registries should be available to qualified and certified researchers and clinicians for analysis. A secondary focus is on the surgery often imposed in cases of intersex. Many current procedures have been found to have negative effects. The overall aim is to provide better management and treatment. Other topics are offered for ethical consideration

 Ethics, case registry, intersex, transsexuality, clinical treatment, surgery

SexuS Journal ● 2018 ● 3 (9): 625-642


Note: The References of this article was listed as it was originally published, not according to the reference rules of SexuS.
[1] S.F. Ahmed, The European Society For Paediatric Endocrinology Disorder Of Sex: Development Registry,https://tethys.nesc.gla.ac.uk/EuroDSD/docs/sop/The%20ESPE%20DSD%20Registry%20SOP160609.pdf, 2009.
[2] S.F. Ahmed, M. Rodiea, J. Jiangb, and R.O. Sinnottb, The European Disorder of Sex Development Registry: A Virtual Research Environment. Sexual Development 4 (2010).
[3] Advocates for Individual Choice, AIC, healing words: AIC negotiates written apology from major hospital, AIC Newsletter, http://us1.campaign-archive.com/?u=f8291560ebb2dafc25097480f&id=5803ec8c71, 2010.
[4] N.K. Alizai, D.F. Thomas, R.J. Lilford, A.G. Batchelor, and N. Johnson, Feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: What happens at puberty? Journal of Urology 161 (1999) 1588-1591.
[5] Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 95 (1995) 314-317.
[6] N. Angier, Sexual identity not pliable after all, report says, New York Times, New York, 1997, pp. A1, A18.
[7] American Psychiatric Association, APA, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1987.
[8] P.S. Appelbaum, C.W. Lidz, and A. Meisel, Informed Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y., 1987.
[9] J.M. Bailey, M.P. Dunne, and N.G. Martin, Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian Twin Sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (2000) 524-536.
[10] J.M. Bailey, and R.C. Pillard, Genetics of human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research 6 (1995) 126-150.
[11] H.G. Beh, and M. Diamond, David Reimer’s Legacy: Limiting Parental Discretion *. Cardozo Women’s Law Journal 12 (2005) 5-30.
[12] H.G. Beh, and M. Diamond, An emerging ethical and medical dilemma: Should physicians perform sex assignment surgery on infants with ambiguous genitalia? Michigan Journal of Gender and Law 7 (2000) 1-63.
[13] H.G. Beh, and M. Diamond, Ethical Concerns Related to Treating Gender Nonconformity in Childhood and Adolescence: Lessons from the Family Court of Australia. Health Matrix Journal of Law-Medicine (Case-Western Reserve) 15 (2005) 239-283.
[14] H. Benjamin, The Transsexual Phenomenon, The Julian Press, Inc., New York, 1966.
[15] S.A. Berenbaum, Effects of prenatal and peripubertal hormones on sexually differentiated human characteristics. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2010).
[16] A.A. Berthold, Transplantation der Hoden. Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie 42 (1849).
[17] R. Bock, A Guide for XXY Males and their Families, NICH&HD, 1993, pp. good review.
[18] T. Bogaert, Birth order phenomenon: what is the biological basis? Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2010).
[19] A. Bracka, Hypospadias repair: the two-stage alternative. British Journal of Urology 3 (1995) 31-41.
[20] D. Cappon, C. Ezrin, and P. Lynes, Psychosexual identification (psychogender) in the intersexed. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal 4 (1959) 90-106.
[21] H. Chen, Klinefelter Syndrome: Treatment & Medication, eMedicine,http://emedicine.medscape.com, 2010.
[22] J. Colapinto, As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl, Harper Collings, New York, 2000.
[23] L. Cook-Daniels, Transgender Elder/SOFFA Roundtable, Forge Social Support, http://www.forge-forward.org/handouts/transelderroundtable.php, 2008.
[24] C. Cossey, My Story, Faber and Faber, London, 1991.
[25] CTV News, Chemicals feminizing male wildlife, study warns, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, CTVglobemediahttp://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/Health/20081209/chemicals_maleanimals_081209/, 2008.
[26] M.M. Desai, M.L. Bruce, R.A. Desai, and B.G. Druss, Validity of Self-reported Cancer History: A Comparison of Health Interview Data and Cancer Registry Records. American Journal of Epidemiology 153 (2001 ) 299-306.
[27] C.J. Dewhurst, and R.R. Gordan, Change of Sex. Lancet 309 (1963) 1213-1217.
[28] D.A. Diamond, J.P. Burns, C. Mitchell, K. Lamb, A.I. Kartashov, and A.B. Retik, Sex assignment for newborns with ambiguous genitalia and exposure to fetal testosterone: attitudes and practices of pediatric urologists. Journal of Pediatrics 148 (2006) 445-9.
[29] D.A. Diamond, J.P. Burns, I. Rosoklija, L. Huang, and A.B. Retik, Gender Assignment for 46XY Cloacal Exstrophy: AAP Urology Section Survey, Amer Acad Pediatrics annual mtg 2010, The Westin, Providence, Rhode Island, 2010.
[30] M. Diamond, Biased-interaction theory of psychosexual development: "How does one know if one is male or female?". Sex Roles 55 (2006) 589-600.
[31] M. Diamond, Biological Aspects of Sexual Orientation and Identity. in: L. Diamant, and R. McAnulty, (Eds.), The Psychology of Sexual Orientation, Behavior and Identity: A Handbook, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1995, pp. 45-80.
[32] M. Diamond, Clinical Implications of the Organizational and Activational Effects of Hormones Hormones and Behavior 55 (2009 ) 621-632.
[33] M. Diamond, A critical evaluation of the ontogeny of human sexual behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology 40 (1965) 147 - 175.
[34] M. Diamond, Genetic-endocrine interection and human psychosexuality. in: M. Diamond, (Ed.), Perspectives in Reproduction and Sexual Behavior, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1968, pp. 417 - 443.
[35] M. Diamond, Human Intersexuality: Difference or Disorder? Archives of Sexual Behavior 38 (2009) 172.
[36] M. Diamond, Human sexual development: biological foundation for social development. in: F.A. Beach, (Ed.), Human Sexuality in Four Perspectives, The John Hopkins Press, 1976, pp. 22 - 61.
[37] M. Diamond, Intersexuality. in: E.J. Haeberle, (Ed.), Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, Garland Publishing Inc., New York, 2010, pp. 
[38] M. Diamond, Pediatric management of ambiguous and traumatized genitalia. The Journal of Urology 162 (1999) 1021-1028.
[39] M. Diamond, Sexual Identity, Monozygotic Twins Reared in Discordant Sex Roles and a BBC Follow-Up. Archives of Sexual Behavior 11 (1982) 181-185.
[40] M. Diamond, Some Genetic Considerations in the Development of Sexual Orientation. in: M. Haug, R.E. Whalen, C. Aron, and K.L. Olsen, (Eds.), The Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behaviour, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1993, pp. 291-309.
[41] M. Diamond, and H.G. Beh, Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4 (2008) 4-5.
[42] M. Diamond, and H.K. Sigmundson, Management of intersexuality: guidelines for dealing with persons with ambiguous genitalia. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151 (1997b) 1046-1050.
[43] M. Diamond, and H.K. Sigmundson, Sex Reassignment at Birth: Long Term Review and Clinical Implications. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151 (1997) 298-304.
[44] M. Diamond, and L.A. Watson, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Klinefelter's Syndrome. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics: Sex and Gender 13 (2004) 623-640.
[45] M. Diamond, and L.A. Watson, Transition: Why I did or didn't. (In Preparation).
[46] A.D. Dreger, E.K. Feder, and A. Tamar-Mattis, Preventing Homosexuality (and Uppity Women) in the Womb? The Hastings Center Report / Bioethics Forum 40 (2010).
[47] L. Ellis, and S. Das, The Factorial Structure of Self-Reported Androgen-Promoted Physiological Traits. Natural Science, (2010).
48] EuroDSD, Welcome to the European DSD Registry, https://tethys.nesc.gla.ac.uk/, Glasgow, 2009.
[49] N. Firth, British ex-MOD boss, 70, becomes first transsexual geisha in Japan. , MailOnline, London, 2008.
[50] M. Gin, Boys Will Be Boys … or Not? Straight Talk About Gender, Scarleteen: Sex ed for the real world, 2010.
[51] GIRES, Atypical Gender Development. International Journal of Transgenderism 9 (2006) 29-44.
[52] K.I. Glassberg, Editorial: Gender assignment and the pediatric urologist. The Journal of Urology 161 (1999) 1308-1310.
[53] B. Goldacre, Lost your libido? Let's try a little neuro-realism, madam, 2010.
[54] E. Govier, M. Diamond, T. Wolowiec, and C. Slade, Dichotic Listening, Handedness, Brain Organization and Transsexuality. International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (2010) 144-154.
[55] J.M. Grant, L.A. Mottet, J. Tanis, J.L. Herman, J. Harrison, and M. Keisling, National Transgender Discrimination Survey Report on health and health care, National Center for Transgender Equality, 2010.
[56] J.A. Greenberg, American Bar Association Draft re Intersex Management and Informed Consent. in: M. Diamond, (Ed.), Personal Communication, 2002.
[57] M. Hines, Prenatal endocrine influence on sexual orientation and sexually differentiated behaviors. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2010).
[58] C.E. Hinkle, Why is OII not using the term DSD or "Disorders of Sex Development"?, Organisation Intersex International, , 2006.
[59] C.P. Houk, and P.A. Lee, Approach to assigning gender in 46, XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia with male external genitalia: replacing dogmatism with pragmatism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 95 (2010) 4501-8.
[60] L.Y. Hsu, Phenotype/karyotype correlations of Y chromosome aneuploidy with emphasis on structural aberrations in postnatally diagnosed cases. American Journal of Medical Genetics 53 (1994) 108-40.
[61] I.A. Hughes, C. Houk, S.F. Ahmed, and P.A. Lee, Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders. . Archives of Disease in Childhood 91 (2006) 554-563.
[62] imaginis, Breast Cancer: Statistics on Incidence, Survival, and Screening, Share:TheLittleThings, , 2010.
[63] ISNA, Intersexuality Frequently Asked Questions Table of Contents: What is Klinefelter's Syndrome. in: H.A.s.M.H. Channel, (Ed.), 2007.
[64] ISNA, Recommendations for Treatment: Intersex infants and children, http://www.isna.org/recommendations.html, 1994.
[65] Intersex Society of North America, ISNA, What's ISNA's position on surgery?, http://www.isna.org/faq/surgery.
[66] J.C. Jorge, C. Echeverri, Y. Medina, and P. Acevedo, Male Gender Identity in an XX Individual with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Journal of Sexual Medicine 5 (2008) 122-131.
[67] K. Kamenova, Politics and Persuasion in Medical Controversies. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) 68-69.
[68] K. Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex Medical Authority and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008.
[69] A.C. Kinsey, W.B. Pomeroy, and C.E. Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1948.
[70] A.C. Kinsey, W.B. Pomeroy, C.E. Martin, and P.H. Gebhard, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1953.
[71] K. Kipnis, Gender, Sex, and Professional Ethics in Childand Adolescent Psychiatry. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics: Sex and Gender 13 (2004) 695-708.
[72] K. Kipnis, and M. Diamond, Pediatric Ethics and the Surgical Assignment of Sex. The Journal of Clinical Ethics 9 (1998) 398-410.
[73] A.C. Lareau, Who decides? Genital-Normalizing Surgery on interseexed infants. Georgetown Law Journal 92 GEOLJ 129 (Cite as: 92 Geo. L.J. 129) (2003) 129-151.
[74] G. Lyons, Effects Of Pollutants On The Reproductive Health Of Male Vertebrate Wildlife - Males Under Threat, EcoTrust, EcoTrust, 2008.
[75] P.L. Martin, Moving toward an international standard in informed consent: The impact of intersexuality and the Internet on the standard of care. Duke Journal of Gender and Law and Policy 9 (2002) 135-169.
[76] L.B. McCullough, F.A. Chervenak, R.L. Brent, A.I. duPont, and B. Hippen, A Case Study in Unethical Transgressive Bioethics: “Letter of Concern from Bioethicists” About the Prenatal Administration of Dexamethasone. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) 35-45.
[77] L.B. McCullough, F.A. Chervenak, R.L. Brent, A.I. duPont, and B. Hippen, The Intellectual and Moral Integrity of Bioethics: Response to Commentaries on “A Case Study in Unethical Transgressive Bioethics: ‘Letter of Concern from Bioethicists’ About the Prenatal Administration of Dexamethasone”. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) W3-W5.
[78] I.W. McKinlay, The KS Story: You are not alone, Hay Lodge Medical Centre, Peebles, Scotland. Available at http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/announce/index.html#ks
[79] C.L. Minto, and S. Creighton, Long term sexual function in Intersex Conditions with Ambiguous Genitalia. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 14 (2002) 141-142.
[80] C.L. Minto, L.-M. Liao, C.R.J. Woodhouse, P.G. Ransley, and S.M. Creighton, The effect of clitoral surgery on sexual outcome in indiiduals who have intersex conditions with "ambiguous genitalia" a cross-sectional study. The Lancet 361 (2003) 1252-1257.
[81] M.N.C.s.H.F. MNCHF, Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Maria New Children's Hormone Foundation, 2010.
[82] J. Money, Cytogenetic and Psychosexual incongruities with a note on space form Blindness. American Journal of Psychiatry 119 (1963) 820-827.
[83] J. Money, and A.A. Ehrhardt, Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1972.
[84] J. Money, and A.A. Ehrhardt, Rearing of a Sex-reassigned Normal Male Infant After Traumatic Loss of the Penis., Man and Woman/Boy and Girl, John hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1972, pp. 46-51.
[85] J. Money, J.G. Hampson, and J.L. Hampson, An examination of some basic sexual concepts: the evidence of human hermaphroditism. Bulliten of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 97 (1955) 301-319.
[86] J. Money, and P. Tucker, Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or Woman, Little, Brown, Boston, 1975.
[87] J. Money, Prenatal hormones and postnatal socialization in gender indentity differentiation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 21 (1973) 221-295.
[88] NCI, Testicular Cancer: Questions and Answers, National Cancer Institute FactSheet,http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/testicular, 2010.
[89] M.I. New, Description and Defense of Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment With Low-Dose Dexamethasone for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) 48-51.
[90] M.I. New, Prevention of ambiguous genitalia by prenatal treatment with dexamethasone in pregnanc\es at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia Pure Applied Chemistry 75 (2003) 2013-2022.
[91] T.C. Ngun, N. Ghahramani, F.J. Sánchez, S. Bocklandt, and E. Vilain, The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2010).
[92] NPCR, National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR), Centers for Disease Control and Preventionhttp://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr, 2010.
[93] T. O’Keefe, Mandatory register of intersex and trans people: no thanks, The Scavenger, 2010.
[94] F. Paris, C. Jeandela, N.g. Servant, and C. Sultan, A potential consequence of prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Environmental Research 100 (2006) 38-43.
[95] J. Parkinson, Gender Identity in Klinefelter’s Syndrome (47xxy) and Male Hypogonadism: Six cases of Dysphoria, Something about that 'X', 2010.
[96] Pediatrics, Timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to the risks, benefits, and psychological effects of surgery and anesthesia. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 97 (1996) 590-4.
[97] C.H. Phoenix, R.W. Goy, A.A. Gerall, and W.C. Young, Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig. Endocrinology 65 (1959) 369-382.
[98] I. Pollution, Phthalates and pollution, Pollution Issues, http://www.pollutionissues.co.uk/phthalates-pollution.html, 2010.
[99] L. Rangecroft, C. Brain, S. Creighton, D. Di Ceglie, O.-S. Amanda, P. Malone, and R. Turnock, Statement of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Working Party on the Surgical Management of Children Born with Ambiguous Genitalia, , 2001.
[100] J.M. Reilly, and C.R.J. Woodhouse, Small penis and the male sexual role. The Journal of Urology 142 (1989) 569-572.
[101] W.G. Reiner, Case Study: Sex reassignment in a teenage girl. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996) 799-803.
[102] W.G. Reiner, Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: the cloacal exstrophy expreience. Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics Of North America: Sex & Gender 13 (2004) 657-674.
[103] W.G. Reiner, To be male or female --that is the question. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 151 (1997) 224-225.
[104] E. Reis, and S. Kessler, Why History Matters: Fetal Dex and Intersex. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) 58-59.
[105] M. Roberts, Don't Diss My Community To Build Pride In Yours, , Houston, Texas, 2008.
[106] M. Roth, and J.R.B. Ball, Psychiatric Aspects of Intersexuality. in: C.N. Armstrong, and A.J. Marshall, (Eds.), Intersexuality: In verebrates including man, Academic Press, London, 1964, pp. 395-443.
[107] S. Röttger, K. Schiebel, G. Senger, S. Ebner, W. Schemppa, and G. Scherera, An SRY-negative 47, XXY mother and daughter. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 91 (2000) 204–207.
[108] J.C. Routh, M.R. Laufer, G.M.J. Cannon, D. Diamond, and P.C. Gargollo, Management strategies for Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser related vaginal agenesis: A cost-effectiveness analysis - Abstract. Journal of Urology 184 (2010) 2116-21.
[109] J.M. Schober, Ethics and Futuristic Scientific Developments Concerning Genitplasty. in: S.E. Sytsma, (Ed.), Ethics and Intersex, Springer, Dordrect, 2006, pp. 311-317.
[110] S. Sharma, and D.K. Gupta, Male Genitoplasty for Intersex Disorders. Advances in Urology 2008 (2008) 1-5.
[111] S. Siedlberg, I am not Dissing you, OII, 2008.
[112] E. Silverman, Marketing A Female Viagra Pill: Moynihan Explains, Pharmalot, 2010.
[113] O.A. Sowande, and O. Adejuyigbe, Management of ambiguous genitalia in Ile Ife, Nigeria: challenges and outcome. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery 6 (2009) 14-18.
[114] Speiser PW, R. Azziz, L. Baskin, L. Ghizzoni, Hensle TW, D. Merke, H. Meyer-Bahlburg, W. Miller, V. Montori, S. Oberfield, M. Ritzen, and W.P. C., Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 95 ( 2010) 4133-4160.
[115] A. Spiegel, Two families grapple with Son's Gender preferences: Psychologists take radically different approaches in therapy, NPR, NPR (National Public Radio), 2008, pp. 
[116] E. Steinach, Sex and life: forty years of biological and medical experiments. , The Viking Press, Canada, 1940.
[117] D. Swaab, Sexually differentiated brain structures: relationship with sexual orientation, gender identity and brain disorders. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2010).
[118] S.H. Swan, F. Liu, M. Hines, R.L. Kruse, C. Wang, J.B. Redmon, A. Sparks, and B. Weiss, Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. International Journal of Andrology 32 (2009) 1-9.
[119] S. T, Living With XXY/Klinefelter Syndrome, http://www.angelfire.com/wy/XXY/XXYLegacy/MyStory.html, Glascow, Scotland, 2002.
[120] G. T'sjoen, G. De Cuypere, S. Monstrey, P. Hoebeke, F.K. Freedman, M. Appari, P.M. Holterhus, V.B. J., and M. Cools, Male Gender Identity in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Archives of Sexual Behavior (2010).
[121] A. Tamar-Mattis, An Attempt to Shut Down Discourse About a Controversial Practice Will Not Benefit Patients, Human Subjects, the Bioethics Community, or the Research Community. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2010) 64-66.
[122] A. Tamar-Mattis, and M. Diamond, Managing variation in sex development. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 20 (2007 ) 552-3.
[123] L. Tiefer, Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Case Study of Disease Mongering and Activist Resistance. PLoS Medicine 3 (2006) 436-440.
[124] UMMC, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Treatment, University of Maryland Medical Center, University of Maryland Medical Center http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000411trt.htm, Baltimore, 2010.
[125] H.J. Vreugdenhil, F.M.E. Slijper, P.G.H. Mulder, and N. Weisglas-Kuperus, Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002) A593-A598.
[126] P. Williams, and M. Smith, Open Secret: The First Question, BBC television production, 1980.
[127] A.B. Wisniewski, and C.J. Migeon, Long-term perspectives for 46, XY patients affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or congenital micropenis. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 20 (2002) 297-304.
[128] S.A. Zderic, D.A. Canning, M.C. Carr, and H.M. Snyder, (Eds.), Pediatric gender assignment: A critical reappraisal, Plenum, New York, 2002.
[129] K.J. Zucker, Children with gender identity disorder: Is there a best practice? . Neuropsychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence 56 (2008) 358-364.
[130] K.J. Zucker, On the "Natural History" of Gender Identity Disorder in Children Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47 (2008) 1361-1363.
[131] B. Zuger, Gender role determination: A critical review on the evidence from hermaphroditism. Psychosomatic Medicine 32 (1970) 449-463.
[132] Zwischengeschlect.org, Open Letter of Concern to 11th EMBL/EMBO Science and Society Conference 'The Difference between the Sexes - From Biology to Behaviour', Nov. 6th 2010, 2010.